After a fresh deployment of the vCenter Server Appliance 6 (VCSA) I got the error below when using “Use Windows session credentials” check box on the thick and web client. After some searching I found VMware KB 2050701 which states this is a known issue affecting vCenter Server Appliance 5.1, 5.5, and 6.0.
The workaround is to just type your user name and password to login. To resolve this issue access the console of your VCSA then hit Alt+F1 on your keyboard. This will bring up the login to the CLI. Log in using the root account then enter the following commands:
shell.set –enabled true
Type vi /etc/nsswitch.conf
This is what the file looks like in the VI editor. Use the arrow down key and move to the line that says passwd: compat ato
Add lsass to the end of the string. It should now look like passwd: compat ato lsass
Hit ESC on your keyboard, the white INSERT at the bottom of the screen should go away. Now on the keyboard type : and it will bring up a text line. Type w and hit enter. This will write (save) the .conf file with your change.
Now hit the : again followed by q (quit)
With the nsswitch.conf file updated restart the VPXD service for the change to take effect. Type /etc/init.d/vmware-vpxd restart
Once restarted you can Alt+F2 back to the VCSA booted splash screen.
After performing these steps I can now login using the Use Windows session credentials on the thick and web clients.
Post your results below! Hope this helps!